Chapter Eleven

On this day did all come to pass as Turambar had thought, for the drake bestirring himself drew slowly to the chasm's edge and turned not aside, -but sought to overcreep it and come thus at the homes of the woodmen. Now the terror of his oncoming was very great, for the earth shook, and those three feared lest the trees that upheld them should loosen their roots and fall into the rocky stream below. The leaves too of those trees that grew nigh were shrivelled in the serpent's breath, yet were they not hurt because of the shelter of the bank. At length did the drake reach the stream-edge and the sight of his evil head and dripping jaws was utterly hideous, and these they saw clearly and were in terror lest he too espy them, for he crossed not over at the spot where Turambar had chosen to lie hid because of the narrowness here of the chasm and its lesser depth. Rather he began to heave himself now across the ravine a little below them, and so slipping from their places Turambar and his men reached as swiftly as might be the stream's bed and came beneath the belly of the worm.

Here was the heat so great and so vile the stench that his men were taken with a sore dread and durst not climb the bank again. Then in his wrath Turambar would have turned his sword against them, but they fled, and so was it that alone he scaled the wall until he came close beneath the dragon's body, and he reeled by reason of the heat and of the stench and clung to a stout bush. Then abiding until a very vital and unfended spot was within stroke, he heaved up Gurtholfin his black sword and stabbed with all his strength above his head, and that magic blade of the Rodothlim went into the vitals of the dragon even to the hilt, and the yell of his death-pain rent the woods and all that heard it were aghast. Then did that drake writhe horribly and the huge spires of his contortions were terrible to see, and all the trees he brake that stood nigh to the place of his agony. Almost had he crossed the chasm when Gurtholfin pierced him, and now he cast himself upon its farther bank and laid all waste about him, and lashed and coiled and made a yelling and a bellowing such that the stoutest blenched and turned to flee. Now those afar thought that this was the fearsome noise of battle betwixt the seven, Turambar and his comrades," and little they hoped ever to see any of them return, and Niniel's heart died within her at the sounds; but below in the ravine those three cravens who had watched Turambar from afar fled now in terrror back towards the fall, and Turambar clung nigh to the lip of the chasm white and trembling, for he was spent.

At length did those noises of horror cease, and there arose a great smoking, for Glorund was dying. Then in utter hardihood did Turambar creep out alone from his hiding, for in the agony of the Foaloke his sword was dragged from his hand ere he might withdraw it, and he cherished Gurtholfin beyond all his possessions, for all things died, or man or beast, whom once its edges bit. Now Turambar saw where the dragon lay, and he was stretched out stiff upon his side, and Gurtholfin stood yet in his belly; but he breathed still. Nonetheless Turambar creeping up set his foot upon his body and withdrew Gurtholfin hardly with all his strength, and as he did so he said in the triumph of his heart: "Now do we meet again, 0 Glorund, thou and I, Turambar, who was once named brave";" but even as he spake the evil blood spouted from that wound upon his hand and burnt it, and it was withered, so that for the sudden pain he cried aloud. Then the Foaloke opening his dread eyes, looked upon him, and he fell in a swoon beside the drake and his sword was under him. Thus did the day draw on and there came no tidings to the hill-top, nor could Niniel longer bear her anguish but arose and made as to leave that glade above the waterfall, and Tamar Lamefoot said: "What dost thou seek to do?" but she: "I would seek my lord and lay me in death beside him, for methinks he is dead", and he sought to dissuade her but without avail.

And even as evening fell that' fair lady crept through the woods and she would not that Tamar should follow her, but seeing that he did so she fled blindly through the trees, tearing her clothes and marring her face in places of thorny undergrowth, and Tamar being lame could not keep up with her. So fell night upon the woods and all was still, and a great dread for Niniel fell upon Tamar, so that he cursed his weakness and his heart was bitter, yet did he cease not to follow so swiftly as he might, and losing sight of her he bent his course towards that part of the forest nigh to the ravine where had been fought the worm's last fight, for indeed that might be perceived by the watchers on the hill. Now rose a bright moon when the night was old, and Tamar, wandering often alone far and wide from the woodmen's homes, knew those places, and came at last to the edge of that desolation that the dragon had made in his agony; but the moonlight was very bright, and staying among the bushes near the edge of that place Tamar heard and saw all that there betid. Behold now Niniel had reached those places not long before him, and straightway did she run fearless into the open for love of her lord, and so found him lying with his withered hand in a swoon across his sword; but the beast that lay hugely stretched beside she heeded not at all, and falling beside Turambar she wept, and kissed his face, and put salve upon his hand, for such she had brought in a little box when first they sallied forth, fearing that many hurts would be gotten ere men wended home. Yet Turambar woke not at her touch, nor stirred, and she cried aloud, thinking him now surely dead: "0 Turambar, my lord, awake, for the serpent of wrath is dead and I alone am near!" But lo! at those words the drake stirred his last, and turning his baleful eyes upon her ere he shut them for ever said: "0 thou Nienori daughter of Mavwin, I give thee joy that thou hast found thy brother at the last, for the search hath been weary -- and now is he become a very mighty fellow and a stabber of his foes unseen"; but Nienori sat as one stunned, and with that Glorund died, and with his death the veil of his spells fell from her, and all her memory grew crystal clear, neither did she forget any of those things that had befallen her since first she fell beneath the magic of the worm; so that her form shook with horror and anguish.

Then did she start to her feet, standing wanly in the moon, and looking upon Turambar with wide eyes thus spake she aloud: "Then is thy doom spent at last. Well art thou dead, 0 most unhappy," but distraught with her woe suddenly she fled from that place and fared wildly away as one mad whithersoever her feet led her. But Tamar whose heart was numbed with grief and ruth followed as he might, recking little of Turambar, for wrath at the fate of Nienori filled all his heart. Now the stream and the deep chasm lay across her path, but it so chanced that she turned aside ere she came to its banks and followed its winding course through stony and thorny places until she came once again to the glade at the head of the great roaring fall, and it was empty as the first grey light of a new day filtered through the trees.

There did she stay her feet and standing spake as to herself: "0 waters of the forest whither do ye go? Wilt thou take Nienori, Nienori daughter of Urin, child of woe? 0 ye white foams, would that ye might lave me clean -- but deep, deep must be the waters that would wash my memory of this nameless curse. 0 bear me hence, far far away, where are the waters of the unremembering sea. 0 waters of the forest whither do ye go?" Then ceasing suddenly she cast herself over the fall's brink, and perished where it foams about the rocks below; but at that moment the sun arose above the trees and light fell upon the waters, and the waters roared unheeding above the death of Nienori. Now all this did Tamar behold, and to him the light of the new sun seemed dark, but turning from those places he went to the hill-top and there was already gathered a great concourse of folk, and among them were those three that had last deserted Turambar, and they made a story for the ears of the folk. But Tamar coming stood suddenly before them, and his face was terrible to see, so that a whisper ran among them: "He is dead"; but others said: "What then has befallen the little Niniel?" -- but Tamar cried aloud: "Hear, 0 my people, and say if there is a fate like unto the one I tell unto thee, or a woe so heavy.

Dead is the drake, but at his side lieth also Turambar dead, even he who was first called Turin son of Urin,> and that is well; aye very well," and folk murmured, wondering at his speech, and some said that he was mad. But Tamar said: "For know, 0 people, that Niniel the fair beloved of you all and whom I love dearer than my heart is dead, and the waters roar above her, for she has leapt o'er the falls of Silver Bowl desiring never more to see the light of day. Now endeth all that evil spell, now is the doom of the folk of Urin terribly fulfilled, for she that ye called Niniel was even Nienori daughter of Urin, and this did she know or ever she died, and this did she tell to the wild woods, and their echo came to me." At those words did the hearts of all who stood there break for sorrow and for dread, yet did none dare to go to the place of the anguish of that fair lady, for a sad spirit abideth there yet and none sets foot upon its sward; but a great remorse pierced the hearts of those three cravens, and creeping from the throng they went to seek their lord's body, and behold they found him stirring and alive, for when the dragon died the swoon had left him, and he slept a deep sleep of weariness, yet now was he awakening and was in pain.

Even as those three stood by he spake and said "Niniel", and at that word they hid their faces for ruth and horror, and could not look upon his face, but afterward they roused him, and behold he was very fain of his victory; yet suddenly marking his hand he said: "Lo! one has been that has tended my hurt with skill -- who think ye that it was?" -- but they answered him not, for they guessed. Now therefore was Turambar borne weary and hurt back among his folk, and one sped before and cried that their lord lived, but men knew not if they were glad; and as he came among them many turned aside their faces to hide their hearts' perplexity and their tears, and none durst speak.

But Turambar said to those that stood nigh: "Where is Niniel, ply Niniel -- for I had thought to find her here in gladness -- yet if she has returned rather to my halls then is it well ', but those that heard could no longer restrain their weeping, and Turambar rose crying: What new ill is this -- speak, speak, my people, and torment me not." But one said: "Niniel alas is dead my lord," but Turambar cried out bitterly against the Valar and his fate of woe, and at last another said: <Aye, she is dead, for she fell even into the depths of Silver Bowl, "but Tamar who stood by muttered: <Nay, she cast herself thither." Then Turambar catching those words seized him by the arm and cried: "Speak, thou club-foot, speak, say what meaneth thy foul speech, or thou shalt lose thy tongue," for his misery was terrible to see.

Now was Tamar's heart in a great turmoil of pain for the dread things that he had seen and heard, and the long hopelessness of his love for Niniel, so did rage against Turambar kindle suddenly within him, and shaking off his touch he said: "A maid thou foundest in the wild woods and gave her a jesting name, that thou and all the folk called her Niniel, the little one of tears. Ill was that jest, Turambar, for lo! she has cast herself away blind with horror and with woe, desiring never to see thee again, and the name she named herself in death was Nienori daughter of Urin, child of woe, nor may all the waters of the Silver Bowl as they drop into the deep shed the full tale of tears o'er Niniel." Then Turambar with a roar took his throat and shook him, saying: "Thou liest -- thou evil son of Bethos" -- but Tamar gasped "Nay, accursed one; so spake Glorund the drake, and Niniel hearing knew that it was true." But Turambar said: "Then go commune in Mandos with thy Glorund," and he slew him before the face of the people, and fared after as one mad, shouting "He lieth, he lieth"; and yet being free now of blindness and of dreams in his deep heart he knew that it was true and that now his weird was spent at last.

So did he leave the folk behind and drive heedless through the woods calling ever the name of Niniel, till the woods rang most dismally with that word, and his going led him by circuitous ways ever to the glade of Silver Bowl, and none had dared to follow him. There shone the sun of afternoon, and lo, were all the trees grown sere although it was high summer still, and noise there was as of dying autumn in the leaves. Withered were all the flowers and the grass, and the voice of the falling water was sadder than tears for the death of the white maiden Nienori daughter of Urin that there had been. There stood Turambar spent at last, and there he drew his sword, and said: "Hail, Gurtholfin, wand of death, for thou art all men's bane and all men's lives fain wouldst thou drink, knowing no lord or faith save the hand that wields thee if it be strong. Thee only have I now -- slay me therefore and be swift, for life is a curse, and all my days are creeping foul, and all my deeds are vile, and all I love is dead."

And Gurtholfin said: "That will I gladly do, for blood is blood, and perchance thine is not less sweet than many' a one's that thou hast given me ere now"; and Turambar cast himself then upon the point of Gurtholfin, and the dark blade took his life. But later some came timidly and bore him away and laid him in a place nigh, and raised a great mound over him, and thereafter some drew a great rock there with a smooth face, and on it were cut strange signs such as Turambar himself had taught them in dead days, bringing that knowledge from the caves of the Rodothlim, and that writing said: Turambar slayer of Glorund the Worm who also was Turin Mormakil Son of Urin of the Woods and beneath that was carven the word "Niniel" (or child of tears); but she was not there, nor where the waters have laid her fair form doth any man know.'Now thereupon did Eltas cease his speaking, and suddenly all who hearkened wept; but he said thereto: 'Yea, 'tis an unhappy tale, for sorrow hath fared ever abroad among Men and doth so still, but in the wild days were very terrible things done and suffered; and yet hath Melko seldom devised more cruelty, nor do I know a tale that is more pitiful.' Then after a time some questioned him concerning Mavwin and Urin and after happenings, and he said: 'Now of Mavwin hath no sure record been preserved like unto the tale of Turin Turambar her son, and many things are said and some of them differ from one another; but this much can I tell to ye, that after those dread deeds the woodfolk had no heart for their abiding place and departed to other valleys of the wood, and yet did a few linger sadly nigh their old homes; and once came an aged dame wandering through the woods, and she chanced upon that carven rock.

To her did one of those woodmen read the meaning of the signs, and he told her all the tale as he remembered it -- but she was silent, and nor spoke nor moved. Then said he: "Thy heart is heavy, for it is a tale to move all men to tears." But she said: "Ay, sad indeed is my heart, for I am Mavwin, mother of those twain," and that man perceived that not yet had that long tale of sorrow reached its ending -- but Mavwin arose and went out into the woods crying in anguish, and for long time she haunted that spot so that the woodman and his folk fled and came never back, and none may say whether indeed it was Mavwin that came there or her dark shade that sought not back to Mandos by reason of her great unhappiness." Yet it is said that all these dread happenings Urin saw by the magic of Melko, and was continually tempted by that Ainu to yield to his will, and he would not; but when the doom of his folk was utterly fulfilled then did Melko think to use Urin in another and more subtle way, and he released him from that high and bitter place where he had sat through many years in torment of heart.

But Melko went to him and spoke evilly of the Elves to him, and especially did he accuse Tinwelint" of weakness and cravenhood. "Never can I comprehend," said he, "wherefore it is that there be still great and wise Men who trust to the friendship of the Elves, and becoming fools enough to resist my might do treble their folly in looking for sure help therein from Gnomes or Fairies. Lo, 0 Urin, but for the faint heart of Tinwelint of the woodland how could my designs have come to pass, and perchance now had Nienori lived and Mavwin thy wife had wept not, being glad for the recovery of her son. Go therefore, 0 foolish one, and return to eat the bitter bread of almsgiving in the halls of thy fair friends." Then did Urin bowed with years and sorrow depart unmolested from Melko's realms and came unto the better lands, but ever as he went he pondered Melko's saying and the cunning web of woven truth and falsity clouded his heart's eye, and he was very bitter in spirit.

Now therefore he gathered to him a band of wild Elves," and they were waxen a fierce and lawless folk that dwelt not with their kin, who thrust them into the hills to live or die as they might. On a time therefore Urin led them to the caves of the Rodothlim, and behold the Orcs had fled therefrom at the death of Glorund, and one only dwelt there still, an old misshapen dwarf who sat ever on the pile of gold singing black songs of enchantment to himself. But none had come nigh till then to despoil him, for the terror of the drake lived longer than he, and none had ventured thither again for dread of the very spirit of Glorund the worm." Now therefore when those Elves approached the dwarf stood before the doors of the cave that was once the abode of Galweg, and he cried: "What will ye with me, 0 outlaws of the hills?" But Urin answered: "We come to take what is not thine." Then said that dwarf, and his name was Mim: "0 Urin, little did I think to see thee, a lord of Men, with such a rabble.

Hearken now to the words of Mim the fatherless, and depart, touching not this gold no more than were it venomous fires. For has not Glorund lain long years upon it, and the evil of the drakes of Melko is on it, and no good can it bring to Man or Elf, but I, only I, can ward it, Mim the dwarf, and by many a dark spell have I bound it to myself." Then Urin wavered, but his men were wroth at that, so that he bid them seize it all, and Mim stood by and watched, and he broke forth into terrible and evil curses. Thereat did Urin smite him, saying: "We came but to take what was not thine -- now for thy evil words we will take what is thine as well, even thy life." But Mim dying said unto Urin: "Now Elves and Men shall rue this deed, and because of the death of Mim the dwarf shall death follow this gold so long as it remain on Earth, and a like fate shall every part and portion share with the whole." And Urin shuddered, but his folk laughed. Now Urin caused his followers to bear this gold to the halls of Tinwelint, and they murmured at that, but he said: "Are ye become as the drakes of Melko, that would lie and wallow in gold and seek no other joy? A sweeter life shall ye have in the court of that king of greed, an ye bear such treasury to him, than all the gold of Valinor can get you in the empty woods." Now his heart was bitter against Tinwelint, and he desired to have a vengeance on him, as may be seen.

So great was that hoard that great though Urin's company might be scarce could they bear it to the caves of Tinwelint the king, and some 'tis said was left behind and some was lost upon the way, and evil has followed its finders for ever. Yet in the end that laden host came to the bridge before the doors, and being asked by the guards Urin said: "Say to the king that Urin the Steadfast is come bearing gifts," and this was done. Then Urin let bear all that magnificence before the king, but it was hidden in sacks or shut in boxes of rough wood; and Tinwelint greeted Urin with joy and with amaze and bid him thrice welcome, and he and all his court arose in honour of that lord of Men; but Urin's heart was blind by reason of his tormented years and of the lies of Melko, and he said: "Nay, 0 King, I do not desire to hear such words -- but say only, where is Mavwin my wife, and knowest thou what death did Nienori my daughter die?> And Tinwelint said that he knew not. Then did Urin fiercely tell that tale, and the king and all his folk about him hid their faces for great ruth, but Urin said: "Nay," had you such a heart as have the least of Men, never would they have been lost; but lo, I bring you now a payment in full for the troubles of your puny band that went against Glorund the drake, and deserting gave up my dear ones to his power.

Gaze, 0 Tinwelint, sweetly on my gifts, for methinks the lustre of gold is all your heart contains." Then did men cast down that treasury at the king's feet, un- covering it so that all that court were dazzled and amazed -- but Urin's men understood now what was forward and were little pleased. "Behold the hoard of Glorund," said Urin, "bought by the death of Nienori with the blood of Turin slayer of the worm. Take it, 0 craven king, and be glad that some Men be brave to win : thee riches." Then were Urin's words more than Tinwelint could endure, and he said: "What meanest thou, child of Men, and wherefore upbraidest thou me?" Long did I foster thy son and forgave him the evil of his deeds, and afterward thy wife I succoured, giving way against my counsel to her wild desires. Melko it is that hates thee and not I. Yet what is it to me -- and wherefore dost thou of the uncouth race of Men endure to upbraid a king of the Eldalie?

Lo! in Palisor my life began years uncounted before the first of Men awoke. Get thee gone, 0 Urin, for Melko hath bewitched thee, and take thy riches with thee" -- but he forebore to slay or to bind Urin in spells, remembering his ancient valiance in the Eldar's cause. Then Urin departed, but would not touch the gold, and stricken in years he reached Hisilome and died among Men, but his words living after him bred estrangement between Elves and Men. Yet it is said that when he was dead his shade fared into the woods seeking Mavwin, and long those twain haunted the woods about the fall of Silver Bowl bewailing their children. But the Elves of Kor have told, and they know, that at last Urin and Mavwin fared to Mandos, and Nienori was not there nor Turin their son. Turambar indeed had followed Nienori along the black pathways to the doors of Fui, but Fui would not open to them, neither would Vefantur.

Yet now the prayers of Urin and Mavwin came even to Manwe, and the Gods had mercy on their unhappy fate, so that those twain Turin and Nienori entered into Fos'Almir, the bath of flame, even as Urwendi and her maidens had done in ages past before the first rising of the Sun, and so were all their sorrows and stains washed away, and they dwelt as shining Valar among the blessed ones, and now the love of that brother and sister is very fair; but Turambar indeed shall stand beside Fionwe in the Great Wrack, and Melko and his drakes shall curse the sword of Mormakil.' And so saying Eltas made an end, and none asked further. NOTES. 1. The passage was rejected before the change of Tintoglin to Tinwelint; see p. 69.

Above the name Egnor is written 'Damrod the Gnome'; see Com- mentary, pp. 139 -- 40. 3. Here and immediately below the name as first written was Tinthellon; this rider must belong to the same time as the note on the MS directing that Tintoglin be changed to Ellon or Tinthellon (p. 69). See note 32. Associated with this replacement is a note on the manuscript read- ing: 'If Beren be a Gnome (as now in the story of Tinuviel) the references to Beren must be altered.' In the rejected passage Egnor: father of Beren 'was akin to Mavwin', i.e. Egnor was a Man. See notes 5 and 6, and the Commentary, p. 139. 'Turin son of Urin'. original reading 'Beren Ermabwed'. See notes 4 and 6. 6. Original reading 'and when also the king heard of the kinship: between Mavwin and Beren'.

See notes 4 and 5. Linwe (Tinto) was the king's original 'Elvish' name, and belongs to the same 'layer' of names as Tintoglin (see I. I 15, 13 I). Its retention' here (not changed to Tinwe) is clearly a simple oversight. See notes 19 and 20. 8. Original reading 'seeing that he was a Man of great size'. 9. With this passage cf. that in the Tale of Tinuviel p. 11, which is ' closely similar. That the passage in Turambar is the earlier (to be ' presumed in any case) is shown by the fact that that in Tinuviel is only relevant if Beren is a Gnome, not a Man (see note 4). 10. 'dreams came to them': original reading 'dreams the Valar sent to them'. 11. 'and his name was Glorund' was added later, as were the subsequent - occurrences of the name on pp. 86, 94, 98; but from the first on . p. 103 onwards Glorund appears in the manuscript as first written. 12. 'with the aid of Flinding whose wounds were not great': original reading 'with the aid of a lightly wounded man'.

All the subsequent references to Flinding in this passage were added.

13. 14. 15. 16. Original reading 'Turin's heart was bitter, and so it was that he and that other alone returned from that battle'. -- In the phrase 'reproach- ing Turin that he had ever withstood his wise counsels"ever' means 'always': Turin had always resisted Orodreth's counsels. Original reading 'although all folk at that time held such a deed grievous and cowardly'. Original reading 'and to look upon Nienori again'. This was emended to 'and to look upon Nienori whom he had never seen'. The words 'since his first days' were added still later. The following passage was struck out, apparently at the time of writing: "Indeed," said they, "it is the report of men of travel and rangers of the hills that for many and many moons have even the farthest marches been free of them and unwonted safe, and so have many men fared out of Hisilome to the Lands Beyond." And this was the truth that during the life of Turambar as an exile from the court of Tintoglin or hidden amongst the Rothwarin Melko had troubled Hisilome little and the paths thereto.

17. 18. 19. 20. 12. 23. 25. (Rothwarin was the original form throughout, replaced later by Rodothlim.) See p. 92, where the situation described in the rejected passage is referred to the earlier time (before the destruction of the Rodothlim) when Mavwin and Nienori left Hisilorne. Original reading 'twice seven'. When Turin fled from the land of Tinwelint it was exactly 12 years since he had left his mother's house (p. 75), and Nienori was born before that, but just how long before is not stated. After 'a great and terrible project afoot' the original reading was 'the story of which entereth not into this tale'. I do not know whether this means that when my father first wrote here of Melko's 'project' he did not have the destruction of the Rodothlim in mind. 'the king': original reading 'Linwe'.

See note 7. Linwe': an oversight. See note 7. 'that high place': original reading 'a hill'. This sentence, 'And even so was Turin's boast...', was added in pencil later. The reference is to Turin's naming himself Turambar -- 'from this hour shall none name me Turin if I live', p. 86. This sentence, from 'for his lineage...' to approximately this point, is very lightly struck through. On the opposite page of the MS is hastily scribbled: 'Make Turambar never tell new folk of his lineage (will bury the past) -- this avoids chance (as cert.) of Niniel hearing his lineage from any.' See Commentary, p. 13 I. Against this sentence there is a pencilled question-mark in the margin. See note 23 and the Commentary, p. 13 I. 'And Niniel conceived' was added in pencil later. See Commentary, P 135. 26. 27. 28. 29. 'and the captain of these was Mim the dwarf' added afterwards in pencil. See Commentary p. 137. The word tract may be read as track, and the word hurt (but with less probability) as burnt. As it stands this sentence can hardly mean other than that the people thought that the men were fighting among themselves; but why should they think such a thing? More likely, my father inadvertently missed out the end of the sentence: 'betwixt the seven, Turambar and his comrades, and the dragon.' Turambar refers to Glorund's words to him before the caves of the Rodothlim: '0 Turin Mormakil, who wast once named brave' (p.86) 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

These words, from 'even he who...', were added later in pencil. Urin may also be read as Hurin. From this point to the end of Eltas' tale the original text was struck . through, and is followed in the manuscript book by two brief narrative.outlines, these being rejected also. The text given here (from 'Yet it is said...') is found on slips placed in the book. For the rejected material see the Commentary, pp. 135 -- 7. Throughout the final portion of the text (that written on slips, see note 31) the king's name was first written Tinthellon, not Tintoglin (see note 3). 'Elves': original reading 'men'. The same change was made below ('Now therefore when those Elves approached'), and a little later 'men' was removed in two places ('his folk laughed', 'Urin caused his followers to bear the gold', p. 114 ); but several occurrences of 'men' were retained, possibly through oversight, though 'men' is used of Elves very frequently in the Tale of Turambar (e.g. 'Beleg and Flinding both stout men', p. So).

This sentence, from 'But none had come nigh...', was added later in pencil. This sentence, from 'Then did Urin fiercely...', was added later, replacing 'Then said Urin: "Yet had you such a heart..."' This sentence, from "What meanest thou...", replaces the original reading "Begone, and take thy filth with thee." Changes made to names in The Tale of Turambar. Fuithlug < Fothlug < Fothlog Nienori At the first occurrence (p. 71) my father originally wrote Nyenore (Nienor). Afterwards he struck out Nyenore, removed the brackets round Nienor, and added -i, giving Nienori. At subsequent occurrences the name was written both Nienor and The opening passage agrees in almost all essentials with the ultimate form of the story. Thus there go back to the beginning of the 'tradition' (or at least to its earliest extant form) the departure of Hurin to the Battle of Unnumbered Tears at the summons of the Noldor, while his wife (Mavwin = Morwen) and young son Turin remained behind; the great stand of Hurin's men, and Hurin's capture by Morgoth; the reason for Hurin's torture (Morgoth's wish to learn the whereabouts of Turgon) and the mode of it, and Morgoth's curse; the birth of Nienor shortly after the great battle. That Men were shut in Hisilome (or Hithlum, the Gnomish form, which here first appears, equated with Dor Lomin, p. 71 ) after the Battle of Unnumbered Tears is stated in The Coming of the Elves (I. 118) and in the last of the outlines for Gilfanon's Tale (I.241); later on this was transformed into the confinement of the treacherous Easterling Men in Hithlum (The Silmarillion p. 195), and their ill-treatment of the survivors of the House of Hador became an essential element in the story of Turin's childhood.

But in the Tale of Turambar the idea is already present that 'the strange men who dwelt nigh knew not the dignity of the Lady Mavwin'. It is not in fact clear where Urin dwelt: it is said here that after the battle 'Mavwin got her in tears into the land of Hithlum or Dor Lomin where all Men must now dwell', which can only mean that she went there, on account of Melko's command, from wherever she had dwelt with Urin before; on the other hand, a little later in the tale (p. 73), and in apparent contradiction to this, Mavwin would not accept the invitation of Tinwelint to come to Artanor partly because (it is suggested) 'she clung to that dwelling that Urin had set her in ere he ment to the great war'. In the later story Morwen resolved to send Turin away from fear that he would be enslaved by the Easterlings (Narn p. 70), whereas here all that is said is that Mavwin 'knew not in her distress how to foster both him and his sister' (which presumably reflects her poverty).

This in turn reflects a further difference, namely that here Nienori was born before Turin's departure (but see p. 131); in the later legend he and his, companions left Dor-lomin in the autumn of the Year of Lamentation and Nienor was born early in the following year -- thus he had never seen her, even as an infant. An important underlying difference is the absence in the tale of the motive that Hurin had himself visited Gondolin, a fact known to Morgoth and the reason for his being taken alive (The Silmarillion pp. 158 -- 9, 196-7); this element in the story arose much later, when the founding of Gondolin was set far back and long before the Battle of Unnumbered Tears. (ii) Turin in Artanor (pp. 72 -- 6). From the original story of Turin's journey the two old men who accompanied him, one of whom returned to Mavwin while the older remained with Turin, were never lost; and the cry of Turin as they set out reappears in the Narn (p. 73): 'Morwen, Morwen, when shall I see you again?' Beleg was present from the beginning, as was the meaning of his name: 'he was called Beleg for he was of great stature' (see I. 254, entry Haloisi velike, and the Appendix to The Silmarillion, entry beleg); and he plays the same role in the old story, rescuing the travellers starving in the forest and taking them to the king.

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