Chapter Twenty-Nine

The only actual difference of structure, however, is that whereas in AElfwine II AElfwine finds again his seven companions in the land of the Ythlings, and sails west with them, together with -Bior of the Ythlings, in AElfwine I they were indeed drowned, and he got seven companions from among the Ythlings (among whom Bior is not named).

The plot-outline AElfwine A tells the story from the point where AElfwine and his seven companions were cast on the Isle of the Man of the Sea (thus differing from AElfwine I and II, where he came there alone) thus: They wander about the island upon which they have been cast and come upon many decaying wrecks -- often of mighty ships, some treasure-laden. They find a solitary cabin beside a lonely sea, built of old ship-wood, where dwells a solitary and strange old mariner of dread aspect. He tells them these are the Harbour- less Isles whose enchanted rocks draw all ships thither, lest men fare over far upon Garsedge [see note l9] -- and they were devised at the Hiding of Valinor. Here, he says, the trees are magical. They learn many strange things about the western world of him and their desire is whetted for adventure. He aids them to cut holy trees in the island groves and to build a wonderful vessel, and shows them how to provision it against a long voyage (that water that drieth not save when heart fails, &c.).

This he blesses with a spell of adventure and discovery, and then dives from a cliff-top. They suspect it was Neorth Lord of Waters. They journey many years among strange western islands hear- ing often many strange reports -- of the belt of Magic Isles which few have passed; of the trackless sea beyond where the wind bloweth almost always from the West; of the edge of the twilight and the far-glimpsed isle there standing, and its glimmering haven. They reach the magic island [read islands?] and three are enchanted and fall asleep on the shore. The others beat about the waters beyond and are in despair -- for as often as they make headway west the wind changes and bears them back. At last they tryst to return on the morrow if nought other happens. The day breaks chill and dull, and they lie becalmed looking in vain through the pouring rain. This narrative differs from both AElfwine I and II in that here there is no mention of the Ythlings; and AElfwine and his seven companions depart on their long western voyage from the Harbour- less Isle of the ancient mariner. It agrees with AElfwine I in the name Neorth; but it foreshadows II in the cutting of sacred trees to build a ship.40. In AElfwine I AElfheah does not appear, and his two speeches in this passage are there given to one Gelimer.

Gelimer (Geilamir) was the name of a king of the Vandals in the sixth century.41. In AElfwine I Bior's speech is given to Gelimer (see note 40).42. AElfine I ends in almost the same words as AElfwine II, but with a most extraordinary difference; AElfwine does not leap overboard, but returns with his companions to Belerion, and so never comes to Tol Eressea! 'Very empty thereafter were the places of Men for AElfwine and his mariners, and of their seed have been many restless and wistful folk since they were dead...' Moreover my father seems clearly to have been going to say the same in AElfwine II, but stopped, struck out what he had written, and introduced the sentence in which AElfwine leapt into the sea. I cannot see any way to explain this. AElfwine A ends in much the same way as AElfwine II: As night comes on a little breath springs up and the clouds lift. They hoist sail to return -- when suddenly low down in the dusk they see the many lights of the Haven of Many Hues twinkle forth. They row thither, and hear sweet music. Then the mist wraps all away and the others rousing themselves say it is a mirage born of hunger, and with heavy hearts prepare to go back, but AElfwine plunges overboard and swims into the dark until he is overcome in the waters, and him seems death envelops him. The others sail away home and are out of the tale. 43 Literally, as he maintained: 'From that (grief) one moved on; from this in the same way one can move on.' There are long roots beneath the words of The Fellowship of the Ring (I. z): 'Elves... could now be seen passing westward through the moods in the evening, passing and not returning; but they were leaving Middle-earth and were no longer concerned with its troubles.'

'"That isn't anything new, if you believe the old tales,"' said Ted Sandyman, when Sam Gamgee spoke of the matter. I append here a synopsis of the structural differences between the three versions of AElfwine of England. A AE. sails from Belerion and sees 'islands in the dawn'. AE. sails again with 7 mariners of England. They are shipwrecked on the isle of the Man of the Sea but all survive. The Man of the Sea helps them to build a ship but does not go with them. 1 As in A AE. has only 3 companions, and he alone survives the shipwreck. The Man of the Sea helps AE. to build a boat and goes with him.. As in A, but his companion AElfheah is named. AE. has 7 companions, and is alone on the isle of the Man of the Sea, believing them drowned. AE. and the Man of the Sea find a stranded Viking ship and sail away in it together.

A. The Man of the Sea dives into the sea from a cliff-top of his isle. On their voyages 3 of AE.'s companions are enchanted in the Magic Isles. They are blown away from Tol Eressea after sighting it; AE. leaps overboard, and the others return home.

They come to the Isle of the Ythlings. The Man of the Sea dives from a cliff-top. AE. gets 7 companions from the Ythlings. As in A, but in this case they are Ythlings. They are blown away from Tol Eressea, and all, including AE., return home.

As in I, but AE. finds his 7 companions from England, who were not drowned; to them is added Bior of the Ythlings. As in A As in A Changes made to names, and differences in names, in the texts of AElfwine of England. Luthien The name of the land in I and II; in A Luthany (see note 20). Deor At the first occurrence only in I Deor < Heorrenda, subse- quently Deor; A Deor. Evadrien In I < Erenol. Erenol = 'Iron Cliff'; see I. 252, entry Eriol. Forodwaith II has Forodwaith < Forwaith < Gwasgonin; I has Gwasgonin or the Winged Helms; A has the Winged Helms. Outer Land < Outer Lands at both occurrences in II (pp. 316 -- 17). AEfheah I has Gelimer (at the first occurrence only < Helgor). Shipmen of the West In II < Eneathrim. APPENDIX. NAMES IN THE LOST TALES -- PART II. This appendix is designed only as an adjunct and extension to that in Part One. Names that have already been studied in Part One are not given entries in the following notes, if there are entries under that name in Part One, e.g. Melko, Valinor; but if, as is often the case, the etymological information in Part One is contained in an entry under some other name, this is shown, e.g. 'Gilim See I.z6o (Melko)'. Linguistic information from the Name-list to The Fall of Condolin (see p. 148) incorporated in these notes is referred to 'NFG'. 'GL' and 'QL' refer to the Gnomish and Qenya dictionaries (see I. 246ff.). Qenya is the term used in both these books and is strictly the name of the language spoken in Tol Eressea; it does not appear elsewhere in the early writings, where the distinction is between 'Gnomish' on the one hand and 'Elfin', 'Eldar', or 'Eldarissa' on the other.

Alqarame For the first element Qenya alqa 'swan' see I. 249 (Alqalunte). Under root RAHA QL gives ra 'arm', rakta 'stretch out, reach', rama 'wing', ramavoite' 'having wings'; GL has ram 'wing, pinion', and it is noted that Qenya rama is a confusion of this and a word roma 'shoulder'. Amon Gwareth Under root AM(U) 'up(wards)' QL gives amu 'up(wards)', amu- 'raise', amunte' 'sunrise', amun(d) 'hill'; GL has am 'up(wards)', amon 'hill, mount', adverb 'uphill'. GL gives the name as Amon 'Wareth 'Hill of Ward', also gwareth 'watch, guard, ward', from the stem gwar- 'watch' seen also in the name of Tinfang Warble (Gwarbilin 'Birdward', I. 268). See Glamhoth, Gwarestrin. Angorodin See I. 249 (Angamandi) and I. 156 (Kalonne'). Arlisgion GL gives Carlisgion (see I.265 (Sirion)), as also does NFG, which has entries 'Garlisgion was our name, saith Elfrith, for the Place of Reeds which is its interpretation', and 'lisg is a reed (liske')'. GL has lisg, lisc 'reed, sedge', and QL liske with the same meaning. For gar see I. 251 (Dor Faidwen). Artanor GL has athra 'across, athwart', athron adverb 'further, beyond', athrod 'crossing, ford' (changed later to adr(a), adron, adros). With athra, adr(a) is compared Qenya arta. Cf. also the name Dor Athro (p. 41). It is clear that both Artanor and Dor Athro meant 'the Land Beyond'. Cf. Sarnathrod.

Asgon An entry in NFG says. "Asgon A lake in the "Land of Shadows" Dor Lomin, by the Elves named Aksan.' Ausir GL gives avos 'fortune, wealth, prosperity,' avosir, Ausir 'the same (personified)', also ausin 'rich', aus(s)aith or avosaith 'avarice'. Under root AWA in QL are aute 'prosperity, wealth; rich', ausie'wealth'. Bablon See p. 214. Bad Uthwen Gnomish uthmen 'way out, exit, escape', see I.251 (Dor Faidwen). The entry in NFG says: 'Bad Uthwen [emended from Uswen] meaneth but "way of escape" and is in Eldarissa Uswevande'.' For vande see I. 264 (Qalvanda). Balcmeg In NFG it is said that Balcmeg 'was a great fighter among the Orclim (Orqui say the Elves) who fell to the axe of Tuor -- 'tis in meaning "heart of evil".' (For -lim in Orclim see Condothlim.) The entry for Balrog in NFG says: 'Bal meaneth evilness, and Balc evil, and Balrog meaneth evil demon.' GL has balc 'cruel'. see I. 250 (Balrog). Bansil For the entry in NFG, where this name is translated 'Fair- gleam', see p. 214; and for the elements of the name see I.272 (Vana) and I. 265 (Sil). Belaurin See I. 264 (Palurien). Belcha See I. 260 (Melko). NFG has an entry: 'Belca Though here [i.e. in the Tale] of overwhelming custom did Bronweg use the elfin names, this was the name aforetime of that evil Ainu.' Beleg See I. 254 (Haloisi Velike). Belegost For the first element see Beleg. GL gives ost 'enclosure, yard -- town', also oss 'outer wall, town wall', osta- 'surround with walls, fortify', ostor 'enclosure, circuit of walls'. QL under root oso has os(t) 'house, cottage', osta 'homestead', ostar 'township', ossa 'wall and moat'. bo- A late entry in GL: 'bo (bon) (cf. Qenya vo, vondo "son") as patronymic prefix, bo- bon- "son of"'; as an example is given Tuor bo-Beleg. There is also a word bor 'descendant'. See go-, Indorion. Bodruith In association with bod- 'back, again' GL has the words bodruith 'revenge', bodruithol 'vengeful (by nature)', bodruithog 'thirsting for vengeance', but these were struck out.

There is also gruith 'deed of horror, violent act, vengeance'. -- It may be that Bodruith Lord of Belegost was supposed to have received his name from the events of the Tale of the Nauglafring. Copas Alqalunten See I. 254 (Kopas) and I. 249 (Alqalunte). Cris Ilbranteloth GL gives the group crisc 'sharp', criss 'cleft, gash, gully', crist 'knife', crista- 'slash, cut, slice', NFG: 'Cris meaneth much as doth falc, a cleft, ravine, or narrow way of waters with high walls'. QL under root KIRI 'cut, split' has kiris 'cleft, crack' and other words. For ilbrant 'rainbow' see I. 256 (Ilweran). The final element is teloth 'roofing, canopy': see I. 267 -- 8 (Teleri). Cristhorn For Cris see Cris Ilbranteloth, and for thorn see I. 266 (Sorontur). In NFG is the entry: 'Cris Thorn is Eagles' Cleft or Sornekiris. ' Cuilwarthon For cuil see I. 257 (Koivie-neni); the second element is not explained. Cum an-Idrisaith For cum 'mound' see I. 250 (Cum a Gumlaith). Idrisaith is thus defined in GL: 'cf. avosaith, but that means avarice, money-greed, but idrisaith = excessive love of gold and gems and beautiful and costly things' (for avosaith see Ausir). Related words are idra 'dear, precious', idra 'to value, prize', idri (id) 'a treasure, s jewel', idril 'sweetheart' (see Idril). Curufin presumably contains curu 'magic'; see I. 269 (Tolli Kuruvar). Dairon GL includes this name but without etymological explanation: 'Dairon the fluter (Qenya Sairon).' See Mar Vanwa Tyalieva below. Danigwiel In GL the Gnomish form is Danigwethil; see I.266 (Taniquetil).

NFG has an entry: 'Danigwethil do the Gnomes call Taniquetil; but seek for tales concerning that mountain rather in the elfin name.' (bo-)Dhrauthodavros '(Son of) the weary forest'. Gnomish drauth 'weary, toilworn', drauthos 'toil, weariness', drautha- 'to be weary'; for the second element tavros see I. 267 (Tavari). Dor Athro See Artanor, Sarnathrod. Dor-na-Dhaideloth For Gnomish dai 'sky' see I. 268 (Telimektar), and for teloth 'roofing, canopy' see ibid. (Teleri); cf. Cris Ilbran- teloth. Dramborleg NFG has the following entry: 'Dramborleg (or as it may be named Drambor) meaneth in its full form Thudder-sharp, and was the axe of Tuor that smote both a heavy dint as of a club and cleft as a sword; and the Eldar say Tarambor or Tarambolaika.' QL gives Tarambor, Tarambolaike 'Tuor's axe' under root TARA, TARAMA'batter, thud, beat', with taran, tarambo 'buffet', and taru 'horn' (included here with a query: see Taruithorn). No Gnomish equivalents are cited in GL. The second element is Gnomish leg, leg 'keen, piercing', Qenya laika; cf. Legolast 'keen-sight', I. 267 (Tari-Laisi). Duilin NFG has the following entry: 'Duilin whose name meaneth Swallow was the lord of that house of the Gondothlim whose sign was the swallow and was surest of the archers of the Eldalie, but fell in the fall of Gondolin. Now the names of those champions appear but in Noldorissa, seeing that Gnomes they were, but his name would be in Eldarissa Tuilindo, and that of his house (which the Gnomes called Nos Duilin) Nosse Tuilinda.' Tuilindo '(spring- singer), swallow' is given in QL, see I.269 (Tuilere); GL has duilin(g) 'swallow', with duil, duilir 'Spring', but these last were struck through and in another part of the book appear tuil, tuilir 'Spring' (see I. 269). For nosse' kin, people see I. 272 (Valinor)-, GL does not give nos in this sense, but has nosta- 'be born', nost 'birth; blood, high birth; birthday', and noss (changed to nos) 'birthday'. Cf. Nost- na-Lothion 'the Birth of Flowers', Nos Galdon, Nos nan Alwen. Earame For ea 'eagle' see I.251 (Eerendel), and for rame see Alqarame. GL has an entry Iotothram, -um '= Qenya Earame or Eaglepinion, a name of one of Earendel's boats'. For Gnomish ior, ioroth 'eagle' see I. 251 (Earendel), and cf. the forms Earam, Earum as the name of the ship (pp. 260, 276). Earendel See pp. 266 -- 7 and 1. 25 I. Earendilyon See I.251 (Earendel), and Indorion.Ec thelion Both GL and NFG derive this name from ecthel 'fountain', to which corresponds Qenya ektele'.

(This latter survived: cf. the entry kel- in the Appendix to The Silmarillion: 'from et-kele "issue of water, spring" was derived, with trans- position of the consonants, Quenya ehtele, Sindarin eithel'. A later entry in GL gives aithil (( ektl) 'a spring'.) -- A form kektele' is also found in Qenya from root KELE, KELU: see I. 257 (Kelusindi). Egalmoth NFG has the following entry: 'Egalmoth is a great name, yet none know clearly its meaning -- some have said its bearer was so named in that he was worth a thousand Elves (but Rumil says nay) and others that it signifies the mighty shoulders of that Gnome, and so saith Rumil, but perchance it was woven of a secret tongue of the Gondothlim' (for the remainder of this entry see p. 215). For Gnomish moth '1000' see I. 270 (Uin). GL interprets the name as Rumil did, deriving it from alm ((<aldam-)'the broad of the back from shoulder to shoulder, back, shoulders', hence Egalmoth = 'Broadshoulder'; the name in Qenya is said to be Aikaldamor, and an entry in QL of the same date gives aika 'broad, vast', comparing Gnomish eg, egrin. These in turn GL glosses as 'far away, wide, distant' and 'wide, vast, broad; far' (as in Egla; see I. 251 (Eldar)). Eglamar See I. 251 (Eldamar). NFG has the following entry: 'Egla said the son of Bronweg was the Gnome name of the Eldar (now but seldom used) who dwelt in Kor, and they were called Eglothrim [emended from Eglothlim] (that is Eldalie'), and their tongue Lam Eglathon or Egladrin. Rumil said these names Egla and Elda were akin, but Elf rith cared not overmuch for such lore and they seem not over alike.' With this cf. I. 251 (Eldar). GL gives lam 'tongue', and lambe is found in QL: a word that survived into later Quenya. In QL it is given as a derivative of root LAVA 'lick', and defined 'tongue (of body, but also of land, or even = "speech")'.

Eldarissa appears in QL ('the language of the Eldar') but without explanation of the final element. Possibly it was derived from the root ISI: ista 'know', isse 'knowledge, lore', iswa, isqa 'wise', etc. Elfrith See pp. 201-2, and I. 255 (llverin). Elmavoite 'One-handed' (Beren). See Ermabwed. Elwing GL has the following entry: 'Ailwing older spelling of Elwing = "lake foam". As a noun = "white water-lily". The name of the maiden loved by Ioringli' (Ioringli = Earendel, see I. 251). The first element appears in the words ail 'lake, pool', ailion 'lake', Qenya ailo, ailin -- cf. later Aelin-uial. The second element is gwing 'foam': see I. 273 (Wingilot). Erenol See I. 252 (Eriol). Ermabwed 'One-handed' (Beren). GL gives mab 'hand', amabwed, mabwed 'having hands', mabwedri 'dexterity', mabol 'skilful', mablios 'cunning', mablad, mablod 'palm of hand', mabrin(d) 'wrist'. A related word in Qenya was said in GL to be mapa (root MAPA) 'seize', but this statement was struck out. QL has also a root MAHA with many derivatives, notably ma (= maha) 'hand', mavoite 'having hands' (cf. Elmavoite).

Faiglindra 'Long-tressed' (Airin). Gnomish faigli 'hair, long tresses (especially used of women)'; faiglion 'having long hair', and faiglim of the same meaning, 'especially as a proper name', Faiglim, Aurfaiglim 'the Sun at noon'. With this is bracketed the word faiglin(d) ra. Failivrin Together with fail 'pale, pallid', failthi 'pallor', and Failin a name of the Moon, GL gives Failivrin: '(1) a maid beloved by Silmo; (2) a name among the Gnomes of many maidens of great beauty, especially Failivrin of the Rothwarin in the Tale of Turumart.' (In the Tale Rothwarin was replaced by Rodothlim.) The second element is brin, Qenya uirin, 'a magic glassy sub- stance of great lucency used in fashioning the Moon. Used of things of great and pure transparency.' For uirin see I. 192-3. Falasquil Three entries in NFG refer to this name (for falas see also I. 253 (Falman)): 'Falas meaneth (even as falas or falasse' in Eldar) a beach.' 'Falas-a-Gwilb the "beach of peace" was Falasquil in Elfin where Tuor at first dwelt in a sheltered cove by the Great Sea.' -a-Gwilb is struck through and above is written, apparently, 'Wild or Wilma. 'Gwilb meaneth "full of peace", which is gwilm.' GL gives gwil, gwilm, gwilthi 'peace', and gwilb 'quiet, peace- ful'.

Fangluin 'Bluebeard'. See Indrafang. For luin 'blue' see I. 262 (Nielluin). Foaloke Under a root FOHO 'hide, hoard, store up' QL gives foa 'hoard, treasure', foina 'hidden', fole' 'secrecy, a secret', folima 'secretive', and foaloke 'name of a serpent that guarded a treasure'. loke 'snake' is derived from a root LOKO twine, twist, curl'. GL originally had entries fu, ful, fun 'hoard', fulug 'a dragon (who guards treasure)', and ulug 'wolf'. By later changes this con- struction was altered to fuis 'hoard', fuithlug, -og (the form that appears in the text, p. 70), ulug 'dragon' (cf. Qenya loke'). An entry in NFG reads: 'Lug is loke' of the Eldar, and meaneth "drake".' Fos'Almir (Earlier name of Faskala-numen; translated in the text (p. 115) 'the bath of flame'.) For fos 'bath' see 1.253 (Faskala- numen). GL gives three names: 'Fos Aura, Fos'Almir, and Fos na Ngalmir, i.e. Sun's bath = the Western Sea.' For Galmir, Aur, names of the Sun, see I. 254 and I. 271 (Ur). Fuithlug See Foaloke. Galdor For the entry in NFG concerning Galdor see p. 215; as first written galdon was there said to mean 'tree', and Galdor's people to be named Nos Galdon. Galdon is not in GL. Subsequently galdon > alwen, and alwen does appear in GL, as a word of poetic vocabulary: alwen '= orn'. -- Cf. Qenya alda 'tree' (see I.249 (Aldaron)), and the later relationship Quenya alda, Sindarin galadh. Gar Thurion NFG has the earlier form Gar Furion (p. 202), and GL has furn, furion 'secret, concealed', also fur 'a lie' (Qenya furu) and fur- 'to conceal; to lie'.

QL has furin and hurin 'hidden, concealed' (root FURU Of HURU). With Thurion cf. Thuringwethil 'Woman of Secret Shadow', and Thurin 'the Secret', Finduilas' name for Turin (Unfinished Tales pp. 157, 159). Gil See I. 256 (Ingil). Gilim See I. 260 (Melko). Gimli GL has gimli '(sense of) hearing', with gim- 'hear', gimriol 'attentive' (changed to 'audible'), gimri 'hearkening, attention'. The hearing of Gimli, the captive Gnome in the dungeons of Tevildo, 'was the keenest that has been in the world' (p. 29). Glamhoth GL defines this as 'name given by the Goldothrim to the Orcin: People of Dreadful Hate' (cf. 'folk of dreadful hate', p. 160). For Goldothrim see I. 262 (Noldoli). The first element is glam 'hatred, loathing'; other words are glamri 'bitter feud', glamog 'loathsome'. An entry in NFG says: 'Glam meaneth "fierce hate" and even as Gwar has no kindred words in Eldar.' For hoth 'folk' see I. 264 (orchoth in entry Orc), and cf. Goldothrim, Gondothlim, Rumhoth, Thornhoth. Under root HOSO QL gives hos 'folk', hosse' 'army, band, troop', hostar 'tribe', horma 'horde, host', also Sankossi 'the Goblins', equivalent of Gnomish Glamhoth, and evidently compounded of sanke 'hateful' (root SNKN 'rend, tear') and hosse. Glend Perhaps connected with Gnomish glenn 'thin, fine', glendrin 'slender', glendrinios 'slenderness', glent, glentweth 'thinness'; Qenya root LENE 'long', which developed its meaning in different directions: 'slow, tedious, trailing', and 'stretch, thin': lenka 'slow', lenwa 'long and thin, straight, narrow', lenu- 'stretch', etc. Glingol For the entry in NFG, where the name is translated 'singing- gold', see p. 216; and see I. 258 (Lindelos). The second element is culu 'gold', for which see I. 255 (Ilsalunte); another entry in NFG reads: 'Culu or Culon is a name we have in poesy for Glor (and Rumil saith that it is the Elfin Kulu, and -gol in our Glingol).' Glorfalc For glor see I. 258 (Laurelin). NFG has an entry: 'Glor is gold and is that word that cometh in verse of the Kor-Eldar laure (so saith Rumil).' Falc is glossed in GL '(1) cleft, gash; (2) cleft, ravine, cliffs' (also given is falcon 'a great two-handed sword, twibill', which was changed to falchon, and so close to English falchion 'broad- sword').

NFG has: 'Falc is cleft and is much as Cris; being Elfin Falqa', and under root FLKL in QL are falqa 'cleft, mountain pass, ravine' and falqan 'large sword'. GL has a further entry: Glorfalc 'a great ravine leading out of Garioth'. Garioth is here used of Hisi1ome; see I. 252 (Eruman). Cf. later Orfalch Echor. Glorfindel For the entry in NFG, where the name is rendered 'Gold- tress', see p. 216. For glor see I. 258 (Laurelin), and Glorfalc. GL had an entry findel 'lock of hair', together with fith (fidhin) 'a single hair', fidhra 'hairy', but findel was struck out; later entries are finn 'lock of hair' (see fin- in the Appendix to The Silmarillion) and fingl or finnil 'tress'. NFG: 'Findel is "tress", and is the Elfin Findil.' Under root FIRI QL gives findl 'lock of hair' and firin 'ray of the sun'. In another place in GL the name Glorfindel was given, and translated 'Goldlocks', but it was changed later to Clorfinn, with a variant Glorfingl. Glorund For glor see I. 258 (Laurelin), and Clorfalc. GL gives Glorunn 'the great drake slain by Turumart'. Neither of the Qenya forms Laurundo, Undolaure (p. 84) appear in QL, which gives an earlier name for 'the great worm', Fentor, together with fent 'serpent', fenume 'dragon'. As this entry was first written it read 'the great worm slain by Ingilmo'; to this was added 'or Turambar'. Golosbrindi (Earlier name of Hirilorn, rendered in the text (p. 51) 'Queen of the Forest'.) A word goloth 'forest' is given in GL, derived from *gwoloth, which is itself composed of aloth (alos), a verse word meaning 'forest' (= taur), and the prefix *ngua > gwa, unaccented go, 'together, in one', 'often used merely intensively'.

The corresponding word in Qenya is said to be malos, which does not appear in QL. Gondobar See Condolin, and for -bar see I. 251 (Eldamar). In GL the- form Condobar was later changed to Conthobar. Gondolin To the entries cited in I. 254 may be added that in NFG: 'Cond meaneth a stone, or stone, as doth Elfin on and ondo.' For the statement about Gondolin (where the name is rendered 'stone of song') in NFG see p. 216; and for the latest formulation of the etymology of Condolin see the Appendix to The Silmarillion, entry gond. Gondothlim GL has the following entry concerning the word lim 'many', Qenya limbe (not in QL): 'It is frequently suffixed and so becomes a second plural inflexion. In the singular it = English "many a", as golda-lim. It is however most often suffixed to the plural in those nouns making their plural in -th. It then changes to -rim after -1. Hence great confusion with grim "host"'and thlim "race", as in Goldothrim ("the people of the Gnomes").' NFG has an entry: 'Gondothlim meaneth "folk of stone" and (saith Rumil) is Cond "stone", whereto be added Hoth "folk" and that -lim we Gnomes add after to signify "the many".' Cf. Lothlim, Rodothlim, and Orclim in entry Balcmeg; for hoth see Glamhoth.

Gondothlimbar See Gondolin, Condothlim, and for -bar see I.251 (Eldamar). In GL the form Condothlimbar was later changed to 'Conthoflimar or Gonnothlimar'. go- An original entry in GL, later struck out, was: gon- go- 'son of, patronymic prefix (cf. suffix ios/ion/io and Qenya yo, yondo)'. The replacement for this is given above under bo-. See Indorion. Gon Indor See go-, Indorion. Gothmog See pp. 67, 216, and I.258 (Kosomot). GL has mog- 'detest, hate', mogri 'detestation', mogrin 'hateful', Qenya root MOKO 'hate'. In addition to goth 'war, strife' (Qenya root KOSO 'strive') may be noted gothwen 'battle', gothweg 'warrior', gothwin 'Amazon', gothriol 'warlike', gothfeng 'war-arrow', gothwilm 'armistice'. Gurtholfin GL: Gurtholfin 'Urdolwen, a sword of Turambar's, Wand of Death'. Also given is gurthu 'death' (Qenya urdu; not in QL). The second element of the name is olfin(g) (also olf) 'branch, wand, stick' (Qenya olwen(n) ). It may be noted that in QL Turambar's sword is given as Sangahyando 'cleaver of throngs', from roots SANGA 'pack tight, press' (sanga 'throng') and HYARA 'plough through' (hyar 'plough', hyanda 'blade, share'). Sangahyando 'Throng-cleaver' survived to become the name of a man in Gondor (see the Appendix to The Silmarillion, entry thang). Gwar See I. 257 (Kor, korin). Gwarestrin Rendered in the Tale (p. 158) as 'Tower of Guard', and so also in NFG; GL glosses it 'watchtower (especially as a name of Gondolin)'. A late entry in GL gives estirin, estirion, estrin 'pinnacle', beside esc 'sharp point, sharp edge'. The second element of this word is tiri(o)n; see I. 258 (Kortirion). For gwar see Amon Gwareth. Gwedheling See I. 273 (Wendelin). Heborodin 'The Encircling Hills.' Gnomish preposition heb 'round about, around'; hebrim 'boundary', hebwirol 'circumspect'.

For orod see I. 256 (Kalorme). Hirilorn GL gives hiril 'queen (a poetic use), princess; feminine of bridhon'. For bridhon see Tevildo. The second element is orn 'tree'. (It may be mentioned here that the word neldor 'beech' is found in QL; see the Appendix to The Silmarillion, entry neldor). Idril For Gnomish idril 'sweetheart' see Cum an-Idrisaith. There is another entry in,GL as follows: Idhril 'a girl's name often confused with Idril. Idril = "beloved" but Idhril = "mortal maiden". Both appear to have been the names of the daughter of Turgon -- or apparently Idril was the older and the Kor-eldar called her Irilde (= Idhril) because she married Tuor.' Elsewhere in GL appear idhrin 'men, earth-dwellers; especially used as a folk-name contrasted with Eglath etc.; cf. Qenya indi', and Idhru, Idhrubar 'the world, all the regions inhabited by Men; cf. Qenya irmin'.

In QL these words indi and irmin are given under root IRI 'dwell?', with irin 'town', indo 'house', indor 'master of house' (see Indor), etc.; but Irilde does not appear. Similar words are found in Gnomish: ind, indos 'house, hall', indor 'master (of house), lord'. After the entry in NFG on Idril which has been cited (p. 216) a further note was added: 'and her name meaneth "Beloved", but often do Elves say Idhril which more rightly compares with Irilde and that meaneth "mortal maiden", and perchance signifies her wedding with Tuor son of Men.' An isolated note (written in fact on a page of the Tale of the Nauglafring) says: 'Alter name of Idril to Idhril. The two were confused: Idril = "beloved", Idhril = "maiden of mortals". The Elves thought this her name and called her Irilde (because she married Tuor Pelecthon).' Ilbranteloth See Cris Ilbranteloth. Ilfiniol, Ilfrith See I. 255 (llverin). Iluvatar An entry in NFG may be noticed here: 'En do the mystic sayings of the Noldoli also name Ilathon [emended from Ad Ilon], who is Iluvatar -- and this is like the Eldar Enu.' QL gives Enu, the Almighty Creator who dwells without the world. For Ilathon see I. 255 -- 6 (Ilwe). Indor (Father of Tuor's father Peleg). This is perhaps the word indor 'master (of house), lord' (see Idril) used as a proper name.

Indorion See go-. QL gives yo, yond- as poetic words for 'son', adding: 'but very common as -ion in patronymics (and hence practically = "descendant")'; also yondo 'male descendant, usually (great) grandson' (cf. Earendel's name Con Indor). Cf. Earendilyon. Indrafang GL has indra 'long (also used of time)', indraluin 'long ago'; also indravang 'a special name of the nauglath or dwarves', on which see p. 247. These forms were changed later to in(d)ra, in(d) rafang, in(d) raluin/idhraluin. An original entry in GL was bang 'beard' = Qenya vanga, but this was struck out; and another word with the same meaning as Indravang was originally entered as Bangasur but changed to Fangasur. The second element of this is sur 'long, trailing', Qenya sora, and a later addition here is Surfang 'a long-beard, a naugla or inrafang'. Cf. Fangluin, and later Fangorn 'Treebeard'. Irilde See.Idril. Isfin NFG has this entry: 'Isfinwas the sister of Turgon Lord of Gondolin, whom Eol at length wedded; and it meaneth either "snow-locks" or "exceeding-cunning".' Long afterwards my father, noting that Isfin was 'derived from the earliest (1916) form of The Fall of Condolin', said that the name was 'meaningless'; but with the second element cf. finn 'lock of hair' (see Glorfindel) or fim 'clever', finthi 'idea, notion', etc. (see I. 253 (Finwe)). Ivare GL gives lor 'the famous "piper of the sea", Qenya Ivare'.' Iverin A late entry in GL gives Aivrin or Aivrien 'an island off the west coast of Tol Eressea, Qenya Iwerin or Iverindor.' QL has Iverind- 'Ireland'. Karkaras In GL this is mentioned as the Qenya form; the Gnomish name of 'the great wolf-warden of Belca's door' was Carcaloth or Carcamoth, changed to Carchaloth, Carchamoth.

The first element is carc 'jag, point, fang'; QL under root KRKR has karka 'fang, tooth, tusk', karkasse,- karkaras 'row of spikes or teeth'. Kosmoko See Gothmog. Kuruki See I. 269 (Tolli Kuruvar). Ladwen-na-Dhaideloth 'Heath of the Sky-roof'. See Dor-na- Dhaideloth. GL gives ladwen '(1) levelness, flatness; (2) a plain, heath; (3) a plane; (4) surface.' Other words are ladin 'level, smooth; fair, equable' (cf. Tumladin), lad 'a level' (cf. mablad 'palm of hand' mentioned under Ermabwed), lada- 'to smooth out, stroke, soothe, beguile', and ladwinios 'equity'. There are also words bladwen 'a plain' (see I. 264 (Palurien)), and fladwen 'meadow' (with flad 'sward' and Fladweth Amrod (Amrog) 'Nomad's Green', 'a place in Tol Erethrin where Eriol sojourned a while; nigh to Tavrobel.' Amrog, amrod = 'wanderer', 'wander- ing', from amra- 'go up and down, live in the mountains, wander'; see Amon Gwareth). Laiqalasse See I. 267 (Tari-laisi), I. 254 (Gar Lossion). Laurundo See Glorund. Legolas See Larqalasse. Lindelokte See I. 258 (Lindelos). Linwe Tinto See I. 269 (Tinwe Linto). Loke See Foaloke'. Los See I. 254 (Car Lossion). The later form loth does not appear in GL (which has however lothwing 'foamflower'). NFG has 'Los is a flower and in Eldarissa losse which is a rose' (all after the word 'flower' struck out). Losengriol As with los, the later form lothengriol does not appear in GL. Losengriol is translated 'lily of the valley' in GL, which gives the Gnomish words eng 'smooth, level', enga 'plain, vale', engri 'a level', engriol 'vale-like; of the vale'.

NFG says 'Eng is a plain or vale and Engriol that which liveth or dwelleth therein', and trans- lates Losengriol 'flower of the vale or lily of the valley'. Los 'loriol (changed from Los Gloriol; the Golden Flower of Gondolin). See I. 254 (Gar Lossion), and for gloriol 'golden' see I. 258 (Laurelin). Loth, Lothengriol See Los, Losengriol. Lothlim See Los and Gondothlim. The entry in NFG reads: 'Lathlim being for Loslim meaneth folk of the flower, and is that name taken by the Exiles of Gondolin (which city they had called Los afore- time).' Mablung For mab 'hand' see Ermabwed. The second element is lung 'heavy; grave, serious'; related words are lungra- 'weigh, hang heavy', luntha 'balance, weigh', lunthang 'scales'. Malkarauki See I. 250 (Balrog). Mar Vanwa Tyalieva See I. 260 and add: a late entry in GL gives the Gnomish name, Bara Dhair Haithin, the Cottage of Lost Play; also daira- 'play' (with dairwen 'mirth', etc.), and haimor haithin 'gone, departed, lost' (with haitha- 'go, walk', etc.). Cf. Dairon. Mathusdor (Aryador, Hisilome). In GL are given math 'dusk', mathrin 'dusky', mathusgi 'twilight', mathwen 'evening'. See Umboth-muilin. Mavwin A noun mavwin 'wish' in GL was struck out, but related words allowed to stand: mav- 'like', mavra 'eager after', mavri 'appetite', mavrin 'delightful, desirable', mavros 'desire', maus 'pleasure; pleasant'. Mavwin's name in Qenya, Mavoine, is not in QL, unless it is to be equated with maivoine'great longing'. Meleth A noun meleth 'love' is found in GL; see I. 262 (Nessa). Melian, Melinon, Melinir None of these names occur in the glossaries, but probably all are derivatives of the stem mel- 'love', see I. 262 (Nessa). The later etymology of Melian derived the name from mel- 'love' (Melyanna 'dear gift'). Meoita, Miaugion, Miaule See Tevildo. Mindon-Gwar For mindon 'tower' see I. 260 (Minethlos); and for Gwar see p. 291 and I. 257 (Kor, korin). Morgoth See p. 67 and Gothmog. For the element mor- see I. 261 (Mornie). Mormagli, Mormakil See I. 261 (Mornie) and I. 259 (Makar).

Nan Dumgorthin See p. 62. For nan see I. 261 (Nandini). Nantsthrin This name does not occur in the last Tales, where the Land of Willows is called Tasarinan, but GL gives it (see I. 265 (Sirion)) and NFG has an entry: 'Dor-tathrin was that Land of Willows of which this and many a tale tells.' GL has tathrin 'willow', and QL tasarin of the same meaning. Nauglafring GL has the following entry: 'Nauglafring = Fring na Nauglithon, the Necklace of the Dwarves. Made for Ellu by the Dwarves from the gold of Glorund that Mim the fatherless cursed and that brought ruin on Beren Ermabwed and Damrod his son and was not appeased till it sank with Elwing beloved of Earendel to the bottom of the sea.' For Damrod (Daimord) son of Beren see pp. 139, 259, and for the loss of Elwing and the Nauglafring see pp. 255, 264. This is the only reference to the 'appeasing' of Mim's curse. -- Gnomish fring means 'carcanet, necklace' (Qenya firinga). Niniel Cf. Gnomish nin 'tear', ninios 'lamentation', ninna- 'weep'; see I. 262 (Nienna). Ninin-Udathriol ('Unnumbered Tears'). See Niniel. GL gives tathn 'number', tathra- 'number, count', udathnarol, udathriol 'innumerable'. U- is a 'negative prefix with any part of speech'. (QL casts no light on Nieriltasinwa, p. 84, apart from the initial element nie 'tear', see I. 262 (Nienna).)

Noldorissa See Eldarissa. Nos Galdon, Nos nan Alwen See Duilin, Galdor. Nost-na-Lothion See Duilin. Parma Kuluinen The Golden Book, see p. 310. This entry is given in QL under root PARA: parma 'skin, bark; parchment; book, writings'. This word survived in later Quenya (The Lard of the Rings III. 401). For Kuluinen see Glingol. Peleg (Father of Tuor). GL has a common noun peleg 'axe', verb pelectha- 'hew' (QL pelekko 'axe', pelekta- 'hew'). Cf. Tuor's name Pelecthon in the note cited under Idril. Ramandur See I. 259 (Makar).

Rog GL gives an adjective rog, rog 'doughty, strong'. But with the Orcs' name for Egnor Beren's father, Rog the Fleet, cf. arog 'swift, rushing', and raug of the same meaning; Qenya arauka. Ros GL gives yet another meaning of this name: 'the Sea' (Qenya Rasa). Rodothlim See Rothwarin (earlier form replaced by Rodothlim). Rothwarin GL has this name in the forms Rothbarin, Rosbarin: '(literally "cavern-dwellers") name of a folk of secret Gnomes and also of the regions about their cavernous homes on the banks of the river.' Gnomish words derived from the root ROTO 'hollow' are rod 'tube, stem', ross 'pipe', roth 'cave, grot', rothrin 'hollow', rodos 'cavern'; QL gives rotse 'pipe', rota 'tube', ronta, rotwa 'hollow', rotele 'cave'. Rumhoth See Glamhoth. Rusitaurion GL gives a noun rus {ms) 'endurance, longsuffering, patience', together with adjective m 'enduring, longsuffering; quiet, gentle', and verb m- 'remain, stay; endure'. For taurion see I. 267 (Tavari). Sarnathrod Gnomish sarn 'a stone'; for athrod 'ford' see Artanor. Sarqindi ('Cannibal-ogres'). This must derive from the root SRKR given in QL, with derivatives sarko 'flesh', sarqa 'fleshy', sarkuva 'corporeal, bodily'. Silpion An entry in NFG (p. 215) translates the name as 'Cherry- moon'. In QL is a word pio 'plum, cherry' (with piukka 'black- berry', piosenna 'holly', etc.), and also Valpio 'the holy cherry of Valinor'. GL gives Piosil and Silpios, without translation, as names of the Silver Tree, and also a word piog 'berry'. Taimonto See I. 268 (Telimektar). Talceleb, Taltelepta (Name of Idril/Irilde, 'of the Silver Feet'.) The first element is Gnomish tal 'foot (of people and animals)', related words are taltha 'foot (of things), base, pedestal, pediment', talrind, taldrin 'ankle', taleg, taloth 'path' -- another name for the Way of Escape into Gondolin was Taleg Uthwen (see Bad Uthwen). QL under root TALA'support' gives tala 'foot', talwi (dual) 'the feet', talas 'sole', etc. For the second element see I. 268 (Telimpe). QL gives the form telepta but without translation. Tarnin Austa For tarn 'gate' see I. 261 (Moritarnon). GL gives aust 'summer', cf. Aur 'the Sun', I. 271 (Ur). Taruithorn, Taruktarna (Oxford). GL gives tar 'horn' and tarog 'ox' (Qenya taruku-), Taruithron older Taruitharn 'Oxford'. Immediately following these words are tarn 'gate' and taru '(1) cross (2) crossing'. QL has taru 'horn' (see Dramborleg), tarukka 'horned', tarukko, tarunko 'bull', Taruktarna 'Oxford', and under root TARA tara-. 'cross, go athwart', tarna 'crossing, passage'.

Tasarinan See Nantathrin. Taurfuin See I. 267' (Tavari) and I. 253 (Fui). Teld Quing Ilon NFG has an entry: 'Cris a Teld Quing Ilon signifieth Gully of the Rainbow Roof, and is in the Eldar speech Kiris Iluqingatelda'; a Teld Quing Ilon was struck out and replaced by Ilbranteloth. Another entry reads: 'Ilon is the sky'; in GL Ilon (= Qenya Ilu) is the name of Iluvatar (see I. 255 (Ilwe')). Teld does not appear in GL, but related words as telm 'roof' are given (see I. 267 -- 8 (Teleri)); and cwing = 'a bow'. QL has iluqinga 'rainbow' (see I. 256 (Ilweran)) and telda 'having a roof' (see I. 268 (Telimektar)). For Cris, Kiris see Cris Ilbranteloth. Tevildo, Tifil For the etymology see I. 268, to which can be added that the earlier Gnomish form Tifil (later Tiberth) is associated in GL with a noun tif 'resentment, ill-feeling, bitterness'. Vardo Meoita 'Prince of Cats': for Vardo see 1.273 (Varda). QL gives meoi 'cat'. Bridhon Miaugion 'Prince of Cats': bridhon 'king, prince', cf. Bridhil, Gnomish name of Varda (1.273). Nouns miaug, miog 'tomcat' and miauli 'she-cat' (changed to miaulin) are given in GL, where -the Prince of Cats is called Tifil Miothon or Miaugion. Miaule was the name of Tevildo's cook (p. 28). Thorndor See I. 266 (Sorontur). Thornhoth See Glamhoth. Thorn Sir See I. 265 (Sirion). Tifanto This name is clearly to be associated with the Gnomish words (tif-, tifin) given in I. 268 (Tinfang). Tifil See Tevildo. Tirin See I. 258 (Kortirion). Ton a Gwedrin Ton is a Gnomish word meaning 'fire (on a hearth)', related to tan and other words given under Tanyasalpe' (I. 266 -- 7); Ton a Gwedrin 'the Tale-fire' in Mar Vanwa Tyalieva. Cf. Ton Sovriel 'the fire lake of Valinor' (sovriel 'purification', sovri 'cleansing'; son 'pure, clean', soth 'bath', so- 'wash, clean, bathe'). Gwedrin belongs with cwed- (preterite cwenthi) 'say, tell', cweth 'word', cwent 'tale, saying', cwess 'saying, proverb', cwedri 'telling (of tales)', ugwedriol 'unspeakable, ineffable'. In QL under root QETE are qet- (qente) 'speak, talk', quent 'word', qentele' 'sentence', Eldaqet = Eldarissa, etc. Cf. the Appendix to The Silmarillion, entry quen- (quet-). Tumladin For the first element, Gnomish tum 'valley', see I.269 (Tombo), and for the second, ladin 'level, smooth' see Ladwen na Dhaideloth. Turambar For the first element see I. 260 (Meril-i-Turinqi). QL gives amarto, ambar 'Fate', and also (root MRTR) mart 'a piece of luck', marto 'fortune, fate, lot', mart- 'it happens' (impersonal). GL has mart 'fate', martion 'fated, doomed, fey', also umrod and umbart 'fate'. Turumart See Turambar. Ufedhin Possible connections of this name are Gnomish uf 'out of, forth from', or fedhin 'bound by agreement, ally, friend'. Ulbandi See I. 260 (Melko). Ulmonan The Gnomish name was Ingulma(n) (Gulma = Ulmo), with the prefix in- (ind-, im-) 'house of' (ind 'house', see Idril). Other examples of this formation are Imbelca, Imbelcon 'Hell (house of Melko)', inthorn 'eyrie', Intavros 'forest' (properly 'the forest palace of Tavros'). Umboth-muilin Gnomish umboth, umbath 'nightfall'; Umbathor is a name of Garioth (see l. 252 (Eruman)). This word is derived from * mbap-, related to * map- seen in math 'dusk': see Mathusdor. The second element is muil 'tarn', Qenya moile'. Undolaure See Glorund. Valar NFG has the following entry: Banin [emended from Banion] or Bandrim [emended from Banlim]. Now these dwell, say the Noldoli, in Gwalien [emended from Banien] but they are spoken of ever by Elfrith and the others in their Elfin names as the Valar (or Vali), and that glorious region of their abode is Valinor.' See I. 272 (Valar).

SHORT GLOSSARY OF OBSOLETE, ARCHAIC, AND RARE WORDS. Words that have been given in the similar glossary to Part I (such as an 'if', fain, lief, meed, rede, ruth) are not as a rule repeated here. Some words of current English used in obsolete senses are included. acquaint old past participle, superseded by acquainted, 287 ardour burning heat, 38, 170 (modern sense 194) bested beset, 193 bravely splendidly, showily, 75 broidure embroidery, 163. Not recorded, but broid- varied with broud- etc. in Middle English, and broudure 'embroidery' is found. burg walled and fortified town, 175 byrnie body-armour, corslet, coat-of-mail, 163 carcanet ornamental collar or necklace, 227-8, 235, 238 carle (probably) serving-man, 85; house-carle 190 chain linear measure (a chain's length), sixty-six feet, 192 champain level, open country, 295, 298 clue thread, 322 cot small cottage, 95, 141 damasked 224, damascened 173, 227, ornamentally inlaid with designs in gold and silver. diapered covered with a small pattern, 173 dight arrayed, fitted out, 173 drake dragon, 41, 46, $5 -- 7, etc. (Drake is the original English word, Old English draca, derived from Latin; dragon was from French). drolleries comic plays or entertainments, 190 enow enough, 241-2 enthralled enslaved, 97, 163, I96, 198 entreat treat, 26, 77, 87, 236 (modern sense 38) errant wandering, 42 estate situation, 97 ewer pitcher for water, 226 eyot small island, 7 fathom linear measure (six feet), formerly not used only of water, 78 fell in dread fell into dread, 106 force waterfall, 105 (Northern English, from Scandinavian). fordone overcome, 233 fosses pits, 288 fretted adorned with elaborate carving, 297 glamour enchantment, spell, 314 greaves armour for the lower leg, 163 guestkindliness hospitality, 228. Apparently not recorded; used in I. 175. haply perhaps, 13, 94, 99 hie hasten; hie thee, hasten, 75 high-tide festival, 231 house-carle 190, see carle. inly inwardly, 315 jacinth blue, 274 kempt combed, 75; unkempt, uncombed, 159 kirtle long coat or tunic, 154 knave male child, boy, 96 (the original sense of the word, long since lost). lair in the dragon's lair, 105, the place where the dragon was lying (i.e. happened at that time to be lying). lambent (of flame) playing lightly on a surface without burning, 297 league about three miles, 171, 189, 201 lealty loyalty, 185 let desisted, 166; allowed, 181; had let fashion, had had fashioned, 174, let seize, had (him) seized, 225, let kill, had (them) killed, 235 like please, 41; good liking, good will, friendly disposition, 169 list wish, 85, 101; like, 236 or ever before ever, 5 -- 6, 38, 80, 110, 233 -- 4, 240 or... or either... Of, 226 pale boundary, 269 ports gateways, 299 prate chatter, speak to no purpose, 75 puissance power, 168 repair make one's way, go, 162 runagate deserter, 15, 44 (the same word in origin as renegade, 15, 44) 224) 232) scathe hurt, harm, 99, 233 scatterlings wanderers, stragglers, 182 sconces brackets fastened on a wall, to carry candle or torch, 226 scullion menial kitchen-servant, drudge, 17, 45 shallop 274. See 1.275; but here the boat is defined as oarless. silvern silver, 270 (the original Old English adjective). slot track of an animal, 38, 96 (= spoor 38). stead farm, 89 stricken in the Stricken Anvil, struck, beaten, 174, 179 swinge stroke, blow, 194 thews strength, bodily power, 33 tilth cultivated (tilled) land, 4, 88, 101 tithe tenth part, 188, 223, 227 travail hardship, suffering, 77, 82, 239; toil, 168; travailed, toiled, 163; travailing, enduring hardship, 75 trencher large dish or platter, 226 uncouth 85 perhaps has the old meaning 'strange', but elsewhere (13, 75, I 15) has the modern sense. vambrace armour for the fore-arm, 163 weird fate, 85 -- 6, xi-x, 155, 239 whin gorse, 287 whortle whortleberry, bilberry; whortlebush 287 withe withy, flexible branch of willow, 229 worm serpent, dragon, 85 -- 8, etc. wrack downfall, ruin, 116, 253, 283, 285

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